Category: televisão

track by vangelis


the nobodys – no guarantees

Twilight Zone intro

Openning Theme – Jan Hammer Theme

Episode 1 – In the air tonight sequence

del shannon – runaway

reacção do major às decisões dos orgaos de justiça da liga que condenaram o boavista à descida de divisao (maio de 2008).

anuncio tmn – pascoa

“Olhos vermelhos,
pêlo branquinho,
eu triplico o saldo,
eu sou o coelhinho!”

o que será que rima com “Coelhinho se eu fosse como tu”??

the plane! THE PLANE!

Fantasy Island Intro (1978-1984)

Term used to describe the aspect ratio of traditional NTSC TV screens and content, measured as 4 (four) units width by 3 (three) units height.

Term for the aspect ratio of DTV formats (all HDTV and some SDTV) screens and content, measuring 16 (sixteen) units width by 9 (nine) units height. May also be called widescreen.


The digital sound system specified for H/DTV broadcasting. AC-3 delivers 5.1 (front left, front right, centre, surround left and surround right speakers, plus an LFE (low frequency effect) subwoofer) channels of CD-quality digital audio. AC-3 is developed by Dolby Labs. AC stands for audio compression, but may be referred to as Dolby Digital (Dolby AC-3).

Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC)
The ATSC is the official organization responsible for developing and establishing DTV and HDTV standards.

Analog to digital conversion (or converter). The process or the device used to convert analog signals to digital. Similar acronyms may be used: D/A (for digital to analog conversions), or DAC (D/A converter).

Addressable Resolution
The highest resolution signal that a display device (television or monitor) can accept as input. However, some such devices may not be capable of displaying the signals and may convert them to a lower resolution for display purposes.

Analog (Analog TV, Analog Video, etc)
Analog is defined as a signal that has a continuously and smoothly varying amplitude or frequency. Analog is the standard for traditional television broadcasts. These signals vary continuously, and the picture brightness and colour (and accompanying sound) are represented by signals proportional to these values, corresponding to fluctuations in colour or brightness. The values of these signals are vulnerable to interference and noise.

A term used to refer to the “squeezing” of a 16:9 image into a 4:3 display, with some visible distortion of the image. If anamorphic 16:9 video is displayed on a 4:3 sized TV screen, the images appear unnaturally tall and narrow. Sometimes, the term is used for the opposite process – “stretching” a 4:3 image to fill a 16:9 screen. Black bars may appear on a screen to fill. DVDs or DVD players often employ some sort of anamorphic processing, depending on the shape or format of a TV set and the shape or format of the source material. Commercial DVDs may use the phrase “enhanced for widescreen” rather than anamorphic.

Unwanted visible effects in a picture. Artifacts can be created by disturbances in analog transmission; through excessive or improper image processing; by pixilation or concatenation in digital pictures, or compression techniques applied to analog-to-digital conversion. Typical artifacts include “aliasing” or “stair-stepping”, “dot crawl”, “herringbone”, “pixelation” and/or “blockiness”.

Aspect Ratio
Refers to the width of a picture relative to its height. The term may apply to the display device, or the format of the content itself. See 4:3 and 16:9.


A term for the amount of data that can travel along a communications channel in a given period of time, and/or a range of frequencies used to transmit such information, like picture and sound. For TV broadcasters and telecom operators, bandwidth may be allocated by government agencies (Industry Canada here and the FCC in the U.S.). Digital channels are allocated 6 (six) megahertz, enough for one HDTV signal or up to five standard definition TV channels (with compression applied).

Bit Rate
Used to express the rate at which digital data is transmitted or processed (often measured in bits per second, or bps). The higher the bit rate, the more data that’s processed. Video demands a high bit rate signal, often expressed as Megabits per second. Audio is often measures in kilobits per second (kbps, significantly less than that of video).


Cable modem
A data device used in the delivery of internet connections over the TV cable. May be a separate set-top device, or built into a display product.

Component Video
Refers to the separation of primary signals in analog TV: red, green, and blue. Also used to refer to devices that separate the signal into luminance (Y, or brightness) and two chroma or colour signals (blue, represented by Pb; and red, or Pr). Component video requires that each signal is separated or shielded from the others to reduce interference, such as with separate wires for each signal, but all three must be present to make a complete TV picture. In consumer video products, the separate component signals travel along separate coaxial cables, usually with red, green and blue RCA-type connectors. Digital and HDTV component cables and connections are commonly labelled Y/Pb/Pr, using shielded multi-pin connectors called DVI or HDMI.

Composite Video
An analog video signal (such as NTSC) that includes both luminance (brightness) and chroma (colour) signals encoded together, so only a single cable and connection is required. Composite signals are susceptible to interference, and do not convey the same quality or resolution as component signals.

A method to reduce the number of bits required to store or transmit data, such as a TV signal, in order to maximize delivery or distribution options. Using various electronic manipulation tools, often called algorithms, digital data streams — like a TV picture — are analyzed and unnecessary or irrelevant image information is discarded. Several compression “flavours” are used in the industry, including well-known audio compression schemes (like MP3 or AC-3) schemes, those used in DVDs and DTV (usually MPEG-2 and/or -4) transmission, and for consumer media (such as JPEG). Compression allows the delivery of more programs with the same bandwidth.

Short for cathode ray tube, this acronym refers to the old vacuum tube technology at the heart of analog TVs. Pictures are written on a CRT by an electron beam that strikes against the inside of the tube, which is coated with light sensitive phosphor. Each time the beam traces along the tube, it “writes” a horizontal line, or scan line, of picture information across the screen. CRTs can produce bright pictures with excellent resolution (there are HDTV CRTs), but their size and weight is often excessive and unsuitable.


DLP (Digital Light Processing)
A modern technology from Texas Instruments for image display, using an array of tiny micro-mirrors on a chip. Each dynamic little mirror reflects some part of the light from an image source onto a display device or screen, as a pixel. Each micro-mirror controls the nature and level of the light sent, and each can do so as many as 5,000 times per second.

Resolution is set by the size of the mirror array. DLP devices for widescreen HDTV are available. This technology may also be referred to as DMD, or digital micromirror device.

Refers to Direct-to-Home satellite delivery of either HD or standard TV signals. May also be called DBS, for Direct Broadcast Satellite. Companies such as Bell ExpressVu, DIRECTV and Star Choice provide DTH services.

Stands for Digital Theatre Sound System, a proprietary discrete 5.1 channel surround system similar to, but not the same as, Dolby Digital AC-3, the DTV standard. DTS is often used in cinema presentations and in DVDs.

The acronym for Digital Television, referring to the new type of broadcasting technology, and the digital transmission of TV signals. Technically, DTV encompasses 18 (eighteen) recognized formats and standards within the ATSC specifications. Generically, it can refer to the core elements of digital television broadcasting, including HDTV, SDTV, datacasting, multicasting and so on.

Technically, DV refers to a certain digital video format, with specifications for tape size (6mm), compression techniques (JPEG algorithm at 5:1) and data rates (25 mbps). Compatible devices, such as camcorders, VTRs and editing systems, carry the DV official logo. Slight variations on the DV specification have been released by Sony (DVCAM) and Panasonic (DVCPRO). Generically, digital video has been used to refer to any digitized video signal, such as HDTV, which has its own more appropriate acronym and designation. May also be referred to as MiniDV.

Stands for Digital Versatile Disk (not Digital Video Disk). DVD is an optical recording media, much like the familiar CD, but with several times the capacity for digital data storage. DVDs are often used to carry full-length theatrical movies, plus additional material such as director’s notes, trailers and so on, but DVDs can also store data of other types (pictures, text, documents, etc). Available in several, not always compatible, “flavours”, DVDs may be single or double sided, single or double-layered, or called DVD-R, DVD+RW, DVD-RAM, HD-DVD, depending on intended function or manufacturer specification.

(Digital Video Interface): A multi-pin interface or connector for carrying digital video signals from a device (computer, DVD player, set-top cable box) to a display. The DVI connection carries only digital video data. Audio and control signals must be connected independently. See also HDMI.

A Digital Video Recorder uses a hard drive, an EPG (Electronic program guide) and internal processing to record and playback recorded TV programs. Commerical examples include Replay and TiVo. DVRs have greater recording time capacities than VCRs or DVD-recording decks. They may also be called personal video recorder (PVR) or hard disk video recorder.

Direct View TV
Direct view televisions use the cathode ray picture tube (CRT) to display images. They range in screen size from less than a foot (measured diagonally) up to about 40-inches. Often large and heavy, these sets usually are placed on a TV stand or tabletop. See also Projection TV and CRT.

Dot Pitch
The distance between pixels or phosphor dots in a display. In a CRT for HDTV, the dot pitch is typically 0.25 – 0.3 mm. The smaller the number, the better – but dot pitch is not the same as image resolution.

The process which reduces the number of pixels in the scanning format used to represent an image, so that it may be reproduced on a display of lower resolution, such as a conventional television. For example, an HDTV image may be downconverted from 1080i to an SDTV or NTSC image (480i). Downconversion may be accomplished with an external device, or it maybe built into a display. Often, significant detail information may be lost in downconversion. See also upconversion.


Enhanced Definition Television. A term defining a television that displays images (either SDTV 4:3 or HDTV 16:9) at a resolution of 480p lines, with Dolby Digital AC-3 multi-channel sound.

The process of coding or protecting data signals. A specific code or key is required to de-encrypt or unlock the data.


Fire Wire
A digital serial interface that can transport data at 100, 200 or 400 Mbps. It is widely used to interconnect digital video devices, such as cameras and displays. Also referred to as IEEE-1394, for an engineering group involved in its standardization, but incorrectly as DV. FireWire can be used to connect digital devices together.

Flat Panel TVs
“Flat panel” and “flat screen” are similar terms, often used interchangeably, but they refer to distinctly different products. A flat-screen TV is not necessarily a flat panel TV, as they can be made with cathode ray tubes (CRT) inside, tubes that have a flat, rather than traditionally curved, surface. Nevertheless, they are still quite large, heavy and box-like, and cannot be mounted on a wall as can flat panels.

Flat panel usually refers to a much thinner and lighter display, one that looks much like a framed piece of art hung on the wall. Plasma and LCD are both flat panel display technologies. See also Projection TVs, LCD, Plasma or CRT.

The smallest complete individual picture in a movie, or a complete video image, containing all its scan lines.

FPS (frames per second)
FPS can refer to the rate at which individual “still” images are recorded so as to convey motion. Increased frame rates are said to improve motion smoothness to reduce flicker in some displays. Traditional film is recorded as 24 fpm; standard analog TV is recorded at 30 fps. Progressive scan devices can double the frame rate to 60 fps See also Interlace and Progressive.

Frame rate
The rate at which frames are displayed (or the rate at which electronic displays are refreshed). The typical projected frame rate for movies is 24 frames per second (24 fps). For regular NTSC video, the display rate is 30 fps. Progressive scan devices are typically twice that of interlaced, or 60 fps.

The number of times per second that a signal fluctuates. The international unit for frequency is the hertz (Hz). One thousand hertz equals 1 KHz (kilohertz). One million hertz equals 1 MHz (megahertz). One billion hertz equals 1 GHz (gigahertz). Television is broadcast in frequencies ranging from 54 MHz to 216 MHz (VHF) and 470 MHz to 806 MHz (UHF).


High Definition Multimedia Interface is a digital connection for HDTV devices that carries video, audio (in uncompressed digital form) and control signals with security protection from the HDCP encryption protocol against unwarranted or unauthorized transmission or replication.

HDMI uses a single cable (maximum length: approximately 15 metres) designed as a successor to DVI with a special 19 pin miniature connection. HDMI supports bi-directional transmission. HDMI maintains the highest quality audio (24 bit, 192 kHz) and video (1080p) signals in home theatre and multi-device environments.

HDTV is a digital TV format or system, with roughly twice the vertical and horizontal picture information of today’s standard TV. There are some 18 variations of the specification, but two main HDTV formats are popularly in use today: (a) 1920 pixels per line and 1080i scan lines per frame and (b) 1280 pixels per line and 720p scan lines per frame. HDTV video has a picture aspect ratio of 16:9. HDTV audio is usually 5.1 channel surround sound (see also AC-3).

High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection is a copy-protection scheme developed by Intel to be used with DVI and HDMI connections.

HD-DVD, for high-definition digital video disc, is one of the competing formats for high-capacity DVDs. Blu-ray is the major competitor. Recently, hybrid formats and devices (like LG’s dual format player) have been unveiled to bridge the incompatibilities between the two competing formats.


Interactive Television
The use of various technological enhancements that enable television viewers to “interact” with the TV show itself, such as ordering products, calling up supportive text or graphic information and communicating with other viewers via associated chat room functions.

Interlaced Scanning
In a traditional television display, pictures are written on the screen by tracing an electron beam across its inner surface. Each pass of this beam across the screen is called a scan line. The “standard” NTSC system uses 525 scanning lines to create a picture (frame). In interlace scanning, the entire frame/picture is made up of two separate fields: The first consists of all the “odd” lines (1, 3, 5, etc…) and the second is made up of “even” lines (2, 4, 6…). The odd lines scan across the screen in 1/60th of a second, and the even lines follow in the next 1/60th of a second. The picture is not complete until both processes are finished, in 1/30th of a second. Some picture interference, such as flicker or aliasing, can result from this stitching together of fields into frames. See also Progressive Scanning.

Input/output. Usually refers to the flow of data to and from devices, or the various audio/video and control connections through which such data flows.


When a wide 16:9 aspect ratio picture is displayed on a 4:3 aspect ratio screen (without squeezing or anamorphic processing), the picture is first scaled down in size so it fits the available width. As a result, the picture is too small vertically, so black bars may be used to fill in the resultant space at the top and bottom. This is called “Letterboxing” and it’s often used to fit movies onto TV screens (hence, the warning “This picture has been reformatted to fit your TV screen???” on many commercial releases.) See also Anamorphic, Pan and Scan, Pillarbox.

(Liquid Crystal Display): A technology that uses thin-film crystal panels that respond to electronic signals to display light and colour on a screen. Used widely in notebook computers, LCD is also used for TVs, HDTVs and projectors. Image brightness can be very high and colour performance can be good, and LCDs require much less power to operate than plasma screens.

LCOS (Liquid Crystal on Silicon)
A flat panel display technology, similar to LCD. Light is reflected off the pixels formed in the LCOS chip and formed into an image on screen (front or rear) by the associated optics. Colour displays may use three LCOS chips, one each for R, G, B (red, green and blue) or a single LCOS chip multiplexed with a colour filter wheel. LCOS achieves very high quality image displays.

Line Doubling
A method used in some televisions with special circuitry to improve the visual quality of an NTSC interlaced picture, by reading, storing then duplicating the scan lines.

That part of a video signal that represents brightness in an image.


Short for modulator/demodulator, a modem is a device that can transform an incoming electronic signal into another form, for further transmission or processing. Typically, a modem is found between a computer and a telephone line, but other uses are frequent.

Acronym refers both to a technical standards body, the “Motion Pictures Expert Group”, and a series of compression, transmission and encoding standards for video and audio. MPEG-2 is the basis for digital television transmission. MP3 is a popular shorthand term for another such recognized standard. Both describe a series of algorithms used and image resolution levels obtained.

Embedded, non-visual data, included in a signal’s stream, and providing detailed information about its nature and origin.

Multichannel, Multipoint Distribution System. A wireless cable system capable of being encoded for pay-per-view and subscriber services.

Term given to the sub-dividing of available digital television bandwidth allocations, or channels, among individual programs and/or data services.


National Television Systems Committee. The organization responsible for setting standards for analog TV production and broadcasting in Canada and the United States. The term is commonly used to refer to a composite television signal, usually in 4:3.

Native Resolution
Native resolution is the actual number of individual picture elements (pixels) in either a camera or a display device that can be incorporated to make the whole picture. In this sense, native resolution differs from addressable resolution in that no processing, line doubling or conversion techniques are applied. TVs sets or plasma displays that are rated at a native 720 resolution will upconvert images to fill a 1080 display. Content created at 1080 will look best on 1080 displays.


Stands for organic light emitting diodes, an alternate technology to LCD for the construction of display devices. OLED devices may be even thinner than LCDs, and their picture quality is very good, with exceptional brightness, sharpness and colour fidelity shown in early models. (See a video of OLEDs in action).

Over-the-air (OTA) Broadcast
Also called Terrestrial Broadcast. The delivery of TV and radio signals directly to consumer devices, without cable connections or satellite dishes. OTA broadcasts may be either analog or digital.


Pan and Scan
A method used to crop the picture frame of the original source material produced in a “wide-screen” format, (any format wider than NTSC-analog’s 4:3 aspect ratio) so it will fit a conventional (4:3) TV set. By “panning” the focus is kept ‘centered’ on the original image, in such a way as to follow the on-screen action. This can mean loss of critical detail, resulting in the scene being viewed entirely different from what the director intended. See also Letterbox, Anamorphic

Pulse code modulation. Sounds are reproduced by modulating the playback rate and amplitude of the sampled digital pulses. This allows PCM sound to be reproduced with varying pitch and amplitude.

When a standard 4:3 aspect ratio picture is displayed on a 16:9 aspect ratio screen (without stretching or anamorphic processing), the picture is first scaled down in size so it fits the available height. In order to preserve the aspect ratio of the original image, the picture is scaled so that it fits the television screen, without distorting the image. As a result, the picture is too small horizontally, so black bars may be used to fill in the resultant space along each side. See also Anamorphic, Letterbox, Pan and Scan.

The popular abbreviation of “picture element”, referring to the single smallest unit of an image display. The smaller the size of the pixels in an image, and the more pixels used in an image, the greater the resolution. HDTV requires from 1 to 2 million pixels in the display for full resolution images to be shown.

Pixel response time
A term describing the amount of time it takes for a single pixel in a video display to respond to new incoming signals, usually measured in milliseconds (ms). If a display’s response time is too slow, faint motion trails may be seen that follow behind fast-moving objects on-screen. A response time of 12 ms or less is best for high quality video playback.

An image display device technology using hundreds-of-thousands of miniature, embedded cells. Each one of these corresponds to one pixel, (picture element) and has three sub-cells. The three sub-cells are filled with a plasma gas which will ‘glow’ red, blue or green (depending on the phosphor coating) when charged electrically. Light from the three “RGB” sub-cells combines to form a one coloured pixel on the screen. Some early plasma devices were susceptible to “burn-in”, an unwanted retention of an image that may be permanently scarred onto the screen.

Projection TVs
Projection TVs are generally regarded as delivering the best, most theatre-like viewing experience. They are available in two basic configurations – front and rear projection – incorporating one of several display technologies, whether liquid-crystal display (LCD), digital-light processing (DLP) or liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) technology to create images on screens that can be measured in feet, not just inches (depending on set-up and viewing distances).

Rear projection TVs are usually a single unit, with built-in screen, connections, electronics and processing gear all in one box. Front projection TVs are generally in two parts – the screen and the projection device itself, which are positioned some distance apart. Many front projectors are ‘portable’ in use and nature, while fixed installed projectors are common in boardrooms and home theatre environments. See also Flat Panels, LCD, Plasma, etc.

Progressive Scanning
Rather than writing individual scan lines across a TV screen in all odd, then all even, lines – called interlaced – progressive scanning writes all horizontal lines in order, top to bottom.?? Rather than displaying 30 frames per second, progressive scan displays show 60 full frames per second, resulting in smoother motion and fewer artifacts. Many display devices, such as DLP, LCD and plasma screens, use progressive scanning, while CRTs may use either progressive (e.g. in computer monitors) or interlaced scanning methods. See also Interlace Scanning.

Short for Personal Video Recorder, this refers to functions added to certain set-top boxes or HD TVs that allow the recording and playback of TV programming, often based on pre-set preferences such as show title, time, content, etc.


Refresh Rate
The refresh rate for a monitor is measured in hertz (Hz) and is also called the vertical frequency, vertical scan rate, frame rate or vertical refresh rate. The old standard for monitor refresh rates was 60Hz, but a new standard developed by VESA sets the refresh rate at 75Hz for monitors displaying resolutions of 640-by-480 or greater. This means that the monitor redraws the display 75 times per second. The faster the refresh rate, the less the monitor flickers.

A term for the apparent quality or sharpness of a video image, signal or display. It’s usually measured in terms of the density of lines and dots that make up the display, and often referred to as “line resolution”, such as 480, 720 or 1080 or “pixel count”, such as one, three or more megapixels (millions of picture elements).

Analog TV uses just over 200,000 pixels, while HDTV, with 1080 vertical lines and 1920 horizontal pixels, uses more than 2 million pixels to display an image.

Although image quality is affected by the total number of pixels in the display, keep in mind that is not the only determinant. Ultimately, picture quality is a combination of factors, including the type of camera (which has resolution itself), the type of lens on the camera, the nature of video production or post-production used, the type of transmission and compression applied in delivery, the nature of processing by the display itself, and other such variables.

Furthermore, as video images are rectangular in shape, there are both horizontal and vertical resolutions to consider.

Vertical resolution refers to the number of horizontal lines (of pixels) from the top of an image to the bottom, each right on top of another. The old analog NTSC TV standard (and all it devices, like VHS VCRs, normal DVD players and any non-HD device) is 525 lines, but, because some lines are encrypted or close-captioned material, the effective vertical viewing resolution equalled about 480. DTV (digital television) signals range from 480 vertical lines for SDTV, up to 720 or 1080 in true HDTV.

Horizontal resolution, on the other hand, refers to the vertical lines (of pixels) from one side of an image to the other. Horizontal resolution varies according to the source. For example: VHS VCRs have about 240 lines, analog TV 330 lines and DVD players have about 540 lines. DTV signals have a horizontal resolution that ranges from 640 lines for SDTV, to 1280 lines (for 720p HDTV) or 1920 lines (for 1080i HDTV).

Consistency and compatibility throughout the image acquisition, production and delivery process is seen as the best way to maintain maximum resolution, and therefore, image quality and fidelity.

Some Typical Digital TV Resolutions:

480i – The picture is 704-by- 480 pixels, sent at 60 interlaced fields per second (30 complete frames per second).
Note: NTSC-Analog TV resolution is 480-i.
480p – The picture is 704-by-480 pixels, sent at 60 complete frames per second.

720p – The picture is 1280-by-720 pixels, sent at 60 complete frames per second.
1080i – The picture is 1920-by-1080 pixels, sent at 60 interlaced fields per second (30 complete frames per second).
1080p – The picture is 1920-by-1080 pixels, sent at 60 complete frames per second.

The abbreviation for the primary colours of light (and television), red, green and blue. Cameras have receptors or circuitry for incoming red, blue and green picture elements. TVs have red, green and blue phosphors, red, green and blue electron guns, or red, green and blue plasma cells to reproduce image colour and fidelity.


Set-top Box (STB; sometimes Decoder, Receiver, Tuner)
A consumer device capable of receiving and decoding TV broadcasts. Certified digital boxes can receive all 18 DTV formats (including HDTV) and provide a picture to compatible displays.

A range of frequencies used for over-the-air transmission.

Standard Definition Television (SDTV)
SDTV refers to digital transmissions with 480-line resolution, either interlaced or progressive scanned formats, in either 4:3 or 16:9 aspect ratios. SDTV offers better imagery than today’s conventional NTSC analog picture resolution, but usually does not come up to HDTV in visual and audio quality or resolution.

The simultaneous broadcast of the same program, over two or more different systems or channels. In Canada, broadcasters simulcast much of their programming in concert with U.S. schedules. Simulcasts can also involve HD resolution programs on one channel, with the same show in standard definition broadcast on another.

Refers to a flow of digital data along a network, such as audio and/or video over the internet, or DTV signals along an IP connection.


A term used to describe the processing of lower quality video to higher, such as 720p to 1080i. Apparent resolution or visual quality is not necessarily improved by this method, as some artifacts may result.


(See 16:9)


Y/Pb/Pr, Y/U/V or Y/Cr/Cb
Various methods to refer to the separated elements of a video signal split into individual components, such as luminance (Y) and the two colour difference signals (Pb, Pr). The individual video components are kept separate in consumer situations or home theatre environments by using a three-wire cable, often with one wire for “Y”(designating light or brightness), one for “Cr” (colour red) and one for “Cb” (colour blue).